Background - Whether cardioinhibitory cytokines are elevated in regions of hibernating myocardium and account in part for the depression in resting function is currently not known. Methods and Results - Thirteen patients with stable ischemic ventricular dysfunction scheduled for bypass surgery underwent preoperative dobutamine echocardiography (DE) and intraoperative myocardial biopsies. The numbers of copies of mRNA for the negatively inotropic cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) were quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In normal segments, myocardial TNF-α was barely detectable (1.2±0.4 copies per 106 copies of β-actin). A 13.7-fold increase in myocardial TNF-α was observed in dysfunctional segments with a biphasic response to DE (contractile reserve and ischemia) and was highest (45.5-fold) in segments with ischemia and without contractile reserve (P<0.001). A similar graded increase was seen for NOS2. Cytokine results were also similar if analysis was performed using recovery of function at 3 months as the index of viability. The change in serum TNF-α and nitrite levels from baseline to 3 months after surgery correlated inversely with both the change in ejection fraction and the number of DE viable segments (r=-0.92 to -0.93; P<0.001). Conclusions - TNF-α and NOS2 gene expression is regionally upregulated in hibernating myocardium to a level intermediate between that of normal regions and ischemic regions without contractile reserve. This, along with a decline in serum cytokine levels after revascularization proportional to the extent of myocardial viability, suggests a contributing role for cardioinhibitory cytokines in the observed depression of function seen in hibernating myocardium.
|Number of pages||4|
|State||Published - Apr 2 2002|
- Heart failure