Increased Mortality After Pulmonary Fungal Infection Within the First Year After Pediatric Lung Transplantation

Lara A. Danziger-Isakov, Sarah Worley, Susana Arrigain, Paul Aurora, Manfred Ballmann, Debra Boyer, Carol Conrad, Irmgard Eichler, Okan Elidemir, Samuel Goldfarb, George B. Mallory, Marian G. Michaels, Peter Michelson, Peter J. Mogayzel, Daiva Parakininkas, Melinda Solomon, Gary Visner, Stuart Sweet, Albert Faro

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58 Scopus citations


Background: Risk factors, morbidity and mortality from pulmonary fungal infections (PFIs) within the first year after pediatric lung transplant have not previously been characterized. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter study from 1988 to 2005 was conducted with institutional approval from the 12 participating centers in North America and Europe. Data were recorded for the first post-transplant year. The log-rank test assessed for the association between PFI and survival. Associations between time to PFI and risk factors were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Of the 555 subjects transplanted, 58 (10.5%) had 62 proven (Candida, Aspergillus or other) or probable (Aspergillus or other) PFIs within the first year post-transplant. The mean age for PFI subjects was 14.0 years vs 11.4 years for non-PFI subjects (p < 0.01). Candida and Aspergillus species were recovered equally for proven disease. Comparing subjects with PFI (n = 58) vs those without (n = 404), pre-transplant colonization was associated with PFI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0; 95% CI 0.95 to 4.3, p = 0.067). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mismatch, tacrolimus-based regimen and age >15 years were associated with PFI (p < 0.05). PFI was associated with any prior rejection higher than Grade A2 (HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.6). Cystic fibrosis, induction therapy, transplant era and type of transplant were not associated with PFI. PFI was independently associated with decreased 12-month survival (HR 3.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 6.8). Conclusions: Risk factors for PFI include Grade A2 rejection, repeated acute rejection, CMV-positive donor, tacrolimus-based regimen and pre-transplant colonization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)655-661
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2008


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