7 Scopus citations


Purpose: To determine whether increased growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in aqueous humor (AH) is associated with worse visual field loss in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG). Methods: We recruited 12 patients (6 males, 6 females) with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or PXG who were scheduled to undergo glaucoma surgery. AH was obtained from the initial peripheral paracentesis for the planned glaucoma surgery, and GDF15 levels were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by an investigator masked to clinical information. Humphrey visual field testing was performed as a part of routine care; results were obtained by reviewing the medical record. Results: AH GDF15 was detectable in patients with POAG and PXG. Increased AH GDF15 was significantly associated with worse mean deviation in patients with POAG (r = −0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.99 to −0.33; P = 0.02) and PXG (r = −0.92; 95% CI, −0.99 to −0.41; P = 0.01). Conclusions: AH GDF15 is detectable in patients with PXG and POAG. Elevated AH GDF15 is strongly associated with worse mean deviation in both subgroups. These findings suggest that GDF15 may be a molecular marker of glaucoma severity that is generalizable to multiple types of glaucoma regardless of the underlying etiology. Translational Relevance: This study provides proof of concept that GDF15, a molecular marker of retinal ganglion stress that was initially identified in rodent models, may have clinical utility as a measure of glaucoma severity not only in POAG but also in PXG.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • GDF15
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Pseudoexfoliative glaucoma


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