Inclusion of endogenous hormone levels in risk prediction models of postmenopausal breast cancer

Shelley S. Tworoger, Xuehong Zhang, A. Heather Eliassen, Jing Qian, Graham A. Colditz, Walter C. Willett, Bernard A. Rosner, Peter Kraft, Susan E. Hankinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Purpose Endogenous hormones are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, and their measurement may improve our ability to identify high-risk women. Therefore, we evaluated whether inclusion of plasma estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) improved risk prediction for postmenopausal invasive breast cancer (n = 437 patient cases and n = 775 controls not using postmenopausal hormones) in the Nurses'Health Study.

Methods We evaluated improvement in the area under the curve (AUC) for 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer by adding each hormone to the Gail and Rosner-Colditz risk scores. We used stepwise regression to identify the subset of hormones most associated with risk and assessed AUC improvement; we used 10-fold cross validation to assess model overfitting.

Results Each hormone was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio doubling, 0.82 [SHBG] to 1.37 [estrone sulfate]). Individual hormones improved the AUC by 1.3 to 5.2 units relative to the Gail score and 0.3 to 2.9 for the Rosner-Colditz score. Estrone sulfate, testosterone, and prolactin were selected by stepwise regression and increased the AUC by 5.9 units (P = .003) for the Gail score and 3.4 (P = .04) for the Rosner-Colditz score. In cross validation, the average AUC change across the validation data sets was 6.0 (P = .002) and 3.0 units (P = .03), respectively. Similar results were observed for estrogen receptor-positive disease (selected hormones: estrone sulfate, testosterone, prolactin, and SHBG; change in AUC, 8.8 [P < .001] for Gail score and 5.8 [P = .004] for Rosner-Colditz score).

Conclusion Our results support that endogenous hormones improve risk prediction for invasive breast cancer and could help identify women who may benefit from chemoprevention or more screening.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3111-3117
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number28
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Inclusion of endogenous hormone levels in risk prediction models of postmenopausal breast cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this