Objective: To assess the 180-day incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections following orthopedic surgeries using microbiology cultures. Design: Retrospective observational epidemiology study. Setting: National administrative hospital database. Patients: Adult patients with an elective admission undergoing orthopedic surgeries in the inpatient and hospital-based outpatient settings discharged between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015. Methods: Patients were identified from 181 hospitals reporting microbiology results to the Premier Healthcare Database. Orthopedic surgeries were defined using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. Microbiology cultures and ICD-9/10 diagnosis codes identified surgical site infections (SSIs), bloodstream infections (BSIs), and other infections associated postoperatively (eg, respiratory and urinary tract infections). Results: Among 359,268 inpatient orthopedic surgical encounters, the S. aureus infection incidence was 1.13%: SSI, 0.68%; BSI, 0.28%; and other types, 0.17%. Among 292,011 outpatient encounters, the S. aureus incidence was 0.78%: SSI, 0.55%; BSI, 0.12%; and other types, 0.11%. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections accounted for 46% and 44% in the respective settings. Plastic/hand-limb reattachment and amputation had the highest overall S. aureus incidence in both settings. S. aureus was the most commonly isolated microorganism among culture-confirmed SSIs (48.0%) and BSIs (35.0%), followed by other Enterobacteriaceae (14.0%) for SSIs and Escherichia spp (12.5%) for BSIs. Conclusions: These findings suggest that S. aureus infections continue to be an important contributor to the burden of postoperative infections after inpatient and outpatient orthopedic procedures.