Sonographic visualization of the cumulus oophorus or of morphologic alterations in the wall of the dominant follicle have been reported to be reliable signs of imminent ovulation when conventional transabdominal sonography is used. To determine if transvaginal sonography could allow a more frequent and confident prediction of imminent ovulation, we prospectively monitored 22 ovulatory menstrual cycles in four women undergoing artificial insemination and in 13 normally menstruating volunteers. Scanning was done on alternate days in the periovulatory period; a 7.5-MHz transvaginal transducer was used. Despite the improved resolution obtained with transvaginal sonography, confident identification of the cumulus oophorus or of mural changes in the follicle was not possible in any of the cycles followed. No other consistent follicular characteristic predicted imminent ovulation. We conclude that confident prediction of imminent ovulation is not possible with sonographic analysis.