Several recent studies suggest that systemic aging in metazoans is differentially affected by functional decline in specific tissues, such as skeletal muscle. In Drosophila, longevity appears to be tightly linked to myoproteostasis, and the formation of misfolded protein aggregates is a hallmark of senescence in aging muscle. Similarly, defective myoproteostasis is described as an important contributor to the pathology of several age-related degenerative muscle diseases in humans, e.g., inclusion body myositis. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a central role in a conserved signaling pathway activated by a variety of stressful stimuli. Aging p38 MAPK mutant flies display accelerated motor function decline, concomitant with an enhanced accumulation of detergent-insoluble protein aggregates in thoracic muscles. Chemical genetic experiments suggest that p38-mediated regulation of myoproteostasis is not limited to the control of reactive oxygen species production or the protein degradation pathways but also involves upstream turnover pathways, e.g., translation. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified Rack1 as a novel substrate of p38 MAPK in aging muscle and showed that the genetic interaction between p38b and Rack1 controls muscle aggregate formation, locomotor function, and longevity. Biochemical analyses of Rack1 in aging and stressed muscle suggest a model whereby p38 MAPK signaling causes a redistribution of Rack1 between a ribosome-bound pool and a putative translational repressor complex.