Recent advances in noninvasive structural imaging have opened up new approaches to cortical parcellation, many of which are described in this special issue on In Vivo Brodmann Mapping. In this introductory article, we focus on the emergence of cortical myelin maps as a valuable way to assess cortical organization in humans and nonhuman primates. We demonstrate how myelin maps are useful in three general domains: (i) as a way to identify cortical areas and functionally specialized regions in individuals and group averages; (ii) as a substrate for improved intersubject registration; and (iii) as a basis for interspecies comparisons. We also discuss how myelin-based cortical parcellation is complementary in important ways to connectivity-based parcellation using functional MRI or diffusion imaging and tractography. These observations and perspectives provide a useful background and context for other articles in this special issue.
- Cortical areas