Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is ubiquitously expressed among all tissues and plays key roles in many physiological and cellular processes. In the central nervous system (CNS), S1PR1 is expressed in different types of cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. S1PR1 has been recognized as a novel therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis and other diseases. We previously reported a promising S1PR1-specific radioligand, [11C]CS1P1 (previously named [11C]TZ3321), which is under clinical investigation for human use. In the current study, we performed a detailed characterization of [3H]CS1P1 for its binding specificity to S1PR1 in CNS using autoradiography and immunohistochemistry in human and rat CNS tissues. Our data indicate that [3H]CS1P1 binds to S1PR1 in human frontal cortex tissue with a Kd of 3.98 nM and a Bmax of 172.5 nM. The distribution of [3H]CS1P1 in human and rat CNS tissues is consistent with the distribution of S1PR1 detected by immunohistochemistry studies. Our microPET studies of [11C]CS1P1 in a nonhuman primate (NHP) show a standardized uptake value of 2.4 in the NHP brain, with test-retest variability of 0.23% among six different NHPs. Radiometabolite analysis in the plasma samples of NHP and rat, as well as in rat brain samples, showed that [11C]CS1P1 was stable in vivo. Kinetic modeling studies using a two-compartment tissue model showed that the positron emission tomography (PET) data fit the model well. Overall, our study provides a detailed characterization of [3H]CS1P1 binding to S1PR1 in the CNS. Combined with our microPET studies in the NHP brain, our data suggest that [11C]CS1P1 is a promising radioligand for PET imaging of S1PR1 in the CNS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3733-3744
Number of pages12
JournalACS Chemical Neuroscience
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 6 2021


  • [C]CS1P1 PET imaging
  • [H]CS1P1 autoradiography
  • central nervous system
  • positron emission tomography
  • radiopharmaceutical
  • sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1


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