BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine whether preoperatively measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) improve cardiac risk prediction in patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery compared with the standard risk indices. METHODS: In this ancillary study to the Vitamins in Nitrous Oxide trial, patients were included who had preoperative hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP measured (n = 572). Study outcome was the incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction (MI) within the first 3 postoperative days. hs-cTnT was considered elevated if >14 ng/L and NT-proBNP if >300 ng/L. Additional cutoff values were investigated on the basis of receiver operating characteristic statistics. Biomarker risk prediction was compared with Lee's Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) with the use of standard methods and net reclassification index. RESULTS: The addition of hs-cTnT (>14 ng/L) and NT-proBNP (>300 ng/L) to RCRI significantly improved the prediction of postoperative MI (event rate 30/572 [5.2%], Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.590 to 0.716 with a 0.66 net reclassification index [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.99], P <.001). The use of 108 ng/L as a cutoff for NT-proBNP improved sensitivity compared with 300 ng/L (0.87 vs 0.53). Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value for hs-cTnT were 0.70, 0.60, 0.09, and 0.97 and for NT-proBNP were 0.53, 0.68, 0.08, and 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of cardiac biomarkers hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP to RCRI improves the prediction of adverse cardiac events in the immediate postoperative period after major noncardiac surgery. The high negative predictive value of preoperative hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP suggest usefulness as a "rule-out" test to confirm low risk of postoperative MI.