Improving PET imaging for breast cancer using virtual pinhole PET half-ring insert

Aswin John Mathews, Sergey Komarov, Heyu Wu, Joseph A. O'Sullivan, Yuan Chuan Tai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


A PET insert with detector having smaller crystals and placed near a region of interest in a conventional PET scanner can improve image resolution locally due to the virtual-pinhole PET (VP-PET) effect. This improvement is from the higher spatial sampling of the imaging area near the detector. We have built a prototype half-ring PET insert for head-and-neck cancer imaging applications. In this paper, we extend the use of the insert to breast imaging and show that such a system provides high resolution images of breast and axillary lymph nodes while maintaining the full imaging field of view capability of a clinical PET scanner. We characterize the resolution and contrast recovery for tumors across the imaging field of view. First, we model the system using Monte Carlo methods to determine its theoretical limit of improvement. Simulations were conducted with hot spherical tumors embedded in background activity at tumor-to-background contrast ranging from 3:1 to 12:1. Tumors are arranged in a Derenzo-like pattern with their diameters ranging from 2 to 12 mm. Experimental studies were performed using a chest phantom with cylindrical breast attachment. Tumors of different sizes arranged in a Derenzo-like pattern with tumor-to-background ratio of 6:1 are inserted into the breast phantom. Imaging capability of mediastinum and axillary lymph nodes is explored. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experiment show clear improvement in image resolution and contrast recovery with VP-PET half-ring insert. The degree of improvement in resolution and contrast recovery depends on location of the tumor. The full field of view imaging capability is shown to be maintained. Minor artifacts are introduced in certain regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6407-6427
Number of pages21
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 21 2013


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