Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is caused by deficient α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and multisystemic disease. Gene therapy could program cells to secrete mannose 6-phosphate-modified IDUA, and enzyme in blood could be taken up by other cells. Neonatal retroviral vector (RV)-mediated gene therapy has been shown to reduce the manifestations of murine MPS I; however, intravenous injection of RV into adults was ineffective owing to a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against transduced cells. In this study, prolonged inhibition of CD28 signaling with CTLA4-Ig, or transient administration of CTLA4-Ig with an anti-CD40 ligand antibody or with an anti-CD4 antibody, resulted in stable expression in most mice that received RV as adults. Mice with stable expression had 81 ± 41U/ml IDUA activity in serum. This resulted in reductions in bone disease, improvements in hearing and vision, and reductions in biochemical and pathological evidence of lysosomal storage in most organs. Improvements in brain were likely due to diffusion of enzyme from blood. However, aortic disease was refractory to treatment. This demonstrates that most manifestations of MPS I can be prevented using adult gene therapy if an immune response is blocked.