Implications of Arm Restraint on Lower Extremity Kinetics During Gait

Jason T. Long, John B. Groner, Dan C. Eastwood, Timothy R. Dillingham, Prateek Grover, Gerald F. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Literature indicates the importance of the upper extremities in providing stability and propulsion for the body during ambulation. However, the kinetic implications of upper extremity restraint during gait are not as well documented. Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of arm restraint (unilateral and bilateral) on lower extremity joint kinetics during walking. Methods: Twenty-three healthy young participants were instrumented for three dimensional motion analysis, and tested in four randomly ordered upper extremity restraint conditions (unrestrained, bilateral restraint, right side restraint, and left side restraint). Temporal spatial parameters and gait/phase-specific lower extremity kinetics and kinematics were measured. For each restraint condition, pointwise differences from the unrestrained condition were compared using a two-way ANOVA model of restraint condition (" Condition" ) and gait cycle phase (" Timing" ). Results: Decreases in walking speed and stride length were observed for all restraint conditions. Differences in kinetic demands were also noted, primarily at the hip and knee. Conclusion: Upper extremity restraint in healthy young adults leads to significant changes in temporal-spatial parameters and proximal joint kinetics, most prominently during periods of load accommodation and balance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)200-206
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • Gait
  • Kinetics
  • Restraint
  • Stability
  • Upper extremity


Dive into the research topics of 'Implications of Arm Restraint on Lower Extremity Kinetics During Gait'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this