Introduction: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) seeks to reduce irradiated volumes and radiation exposure for patients while maintaining acceptable clinical outcomes. Magnetic resonance image-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast for treatment localization, which can reduce setup uncertainty, thus reducing margins in the external beam setting. Additionally, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)-style regimens with high gradients can also be executed. This MR-guided stereotactic APBI (MRgS-APBI) approach can be utilized for a lower number of fractions and spare a greater volume of healthy tissues compared to conventional 3D external beam APBI. Methods: Our MRgS-APBI program was developed for two prospective non-randomized phase I/II clinical trials (20Gyx1 and 8.5Gyx3). Both breast SBRT treatment planning and MRgRT delivery techniques were described in this study. Simulation included both CT and MRI with specialized immobilization to accommodate MR-guided setup and cine-MRI treatment gating. Dosimetry data from 48 single-fraction and 19 three-fraction patients were collected and evaluated. This included planning objectives and SBRT-specific indices. During treatment, setup errors were calculated to evaluate setup reproducibility and duty cycle was calculated using cine-MRI data during gated delivery. Results: In both the single- and three- fraction trials combined, 88.5% of the possible dosimetric objectives across all patients were met during planning. The majority of the planning objectives were easily achievable indicating the potential for stricter objectives for subsequent S-APBI treatments. The average magnitude of setup uncertainties was 1.0 cm ± 0.6 cm across all treatments. In the three-fraction trial, the average beam-on duty-cycle for the MRI-gated delivery was 83.0 ± 13.0%. There were no technical MRgS-APBI related issues that resulted in discontinuation of treatment across all patients. Conclusion: SBRT-style dosimetry and delivery for APBI is feasible using MR-guidance. The program development and dosimetric outcomes reported here can serve as a guide for other institutions considering the clinical implementation of MR-guided stereotactic APBI.
- Breast cancer
- MRI-guided radiation therapy