Objective. To explore barriers and facilitators to implementing an evidence-based clinical decision support (CDS) tool (BREASTChoice) about post-mastectomy breast reconstruction into routine care. Materials and Methods. A stakeholder advisory group of cancer survivors, clinicians who discuss and/or perform breast reconstruction in women with cancer, and informatics professionals helped design and review the interview guide. Based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), we conducted qualitative semistructured interviews with key stakeholders (patients, clinicians, informatics professionals) to explore intervention, setting characteristics, and process-level variables that can impact implementation. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed based on the CFIR framework using both inductive and deductive methods. Results. Fifty-seven potential participants were contacted; 49 (85.9%) were eligible, and 35 (71.4%) were enrolled, continuing until thematic saturation was reached. Participants consisted of 13 patients, 13 clinicians, and 9 informatics professionals. Stakeholders thought that BREASTChoice was useful and provided patients with an evidence-based source of information about post-mastectomy breast reconstruction, including their personalized risks. They felt that BREASTChoice could support shared decision making, improve workflow, and possibly save consultation time, but were uncertain about the best time to deliver BREASTChoice to patients. Some worried about cost, data availability, and security of integrating the tool into an electronic health record. Most acknowledged the importance of showing clinical utility to gain institutional buy-in and encourage routine adoption. Discussion and Conclusion. Stakeholders felt that BREASTChoice could support shared decision making, improve workflow, and reduce consultation time. Addressing key questions such as cost, data integration, and timing of delivering BREASTChoice could build institutional buy-in for CDS implementation. Results can guide future CDS implementation studies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMDM Policy and Practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


  • breast cancer
  • breast reconstruction
  • clinical decision tool (CDS)
  • decision aids
  • shared decision making


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