Background The surgical management of colitis-associated rectal cancer (CARC) is not well defined. This study determines outcomes after surgery for CARC compared with sporadic rectal cancer. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study comparing 27 patients with CARC with 54 matched patients with sporadic cancer. Matching criteria included age, gender, neoadjuvant chemoradiation, and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage. Outcome measures were disease-free and overall survival, tumor characteristics, and postoperative morbidity. Results Compared to those with sporadic rectal cancer, patients with CARC underwent proctocolectomy more frequently (21 [78%] versus 6 [22%] P < 0.001) and were more likely to have mucinous tumors (11 [40.7%] versus 12 [22.3%] P = 0.03). Overall 3-y survival was significantly reduced in CARC patients compared with patients with sporadic rectal cancer. Those with CARC undergoing segmental proctectomy only demonstrated reduced overall and disease-free survival compared to patients with sporadic rectal cancer and to colitis patients undergoing proctocolectomy (P = 0.002). Conclusions Patients with CARC undergoing proctectomy demonstrate reduced disease-free survival versus those undergoing proctocolectomy, and versus patients with sporadic rectal cancer undergoing proctectomy. These findings warrant further study and suggest that proctocolectomy should be considered the preferred surgical approach for CARC.
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Rectal cancer