Purpose:The impact of nonurological factors on male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) remains unclear. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among anxiety, depression, physical function, sleep quality and urinary symptom subdomains.Materials and Methods:Data from 518 men in the LURN (Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network) study were analyzed to identify associations between Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and physical function measures and LUTS subdomains, as derived from the American Urological Association Symptom Index and LUTS Tool. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the relationships between PROMIS measures and LUTS subdomains at baseline and at 3- and 12-month followup.Results:Baseline depression and anxiety were associated with urinary incontinence (p <0.001), voiding symptoms (p <0.001) and quality of life (p=0.002), whereas baseline sleep disturbance was associated with voiding and storage symptoms and quality of life (p <0.001 for all). Urinary symptom severity improved in all subdomains at 3 and 12 months. Similar associations between PROMIS measures and LUTS subdomains were observed at all time points, but baseline depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and physical function measures were not associated with longitudinal trajectories of LUTS.Conclusions:Urinary symptom subdomains are independently associated with modifiable clinical variables including sleep quality and depression at all time points, but these variables do not predict the degree of improvement in LUTS following urological evaluation and treatment over the medium term. Bidirectional assessment and randomized experiments may improve our understanding of these relationships.
- lower urinary tract symptoms
- patient reported outcome measures
- quality of life