Background: Previous studies in the field of organ transplantation have shown a possible association between nighttime surgery and adverse outcomes. We aim to determine the impact of nighttime lung transplantation on postoperative outcomes, long-term survival, and overall cost. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort analysis of adult lung transplant recipients who underwent transplantation between January 2006 and December 2017. Data were extracted from our institutional Lung Transplant Registry and Mid-America Transplant services database. Patients were classified into 2 strata, daytime (5 AM to 6 PM) and nighttime (6 PM to 5 AM), based on time of incision. Major postoperative adverse events, 5-year overall survival, and 5-year bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome–free survival were examined after propensity score matching. Additionally we compared overall cost of transplantation between nighttime and daytime groups. Results: Of the 740 patients included in this study, 549 (74.2%) underwent daytime transplantation and 191 (25.8%) underwent nighttime transplantation (NT). Propensity score matching yielded 187 matched pairs. NT was associated with a higher risk of having any major postoperative adverse event (adjusted odds ratio, 1.731; 95% confidence interval, 1.093-2.741; P =.019), decreased 5-year overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.798; 95% confidence interval, 1.079-2.995; P =.024), and decreased 5-year bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome–free survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.556; 95% confidence interval, 1.098-2.205; P =.013) in doubly robust multivariable analyses after propensity score matching. Overall cost for NT and daytime transplantation was similar. Conclusions: NT was associated with a higher risk of major postoperative adverse events, decreased 5-year overall survival, and decreased 5-year bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome–free survival. Our findings suggest potential benefits of delaying NT to daytime transplantation.