Impact of concurrent versus adjuvant chemotherapy on the severity and duration of lymphopenia in glioma patients treated with radiation therapy

Alexander J. Lin, Jian L. Campian, Caressa Hui, Soumon Rudra, Yuan J. Rao, Dinesh Thotala, Dennis Hallahan, Jiayi Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Prolonged severe lymphopenia has been shown to persist beyond a year in glioma patients after radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. This study examines the differential impact of concurrent versus adjuvant chemotherapy on lymphopenia after RT. WHO grade II–III glioma patients who received RT with concurrent and/or adjuvant chemotherapy from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was temozolomide (TMZ), and adjuvant chemotherapy was either TMZ or procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV). Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was analyzed at baseline, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months after the start of RT. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the clinical variables in predicting acute or late lymphopenia. There were 151 patients with evaluable ALC: 91 received concurrent and adjuvant TMZ (CRT + ADJ), 32 received only concurrent TMZ (CRT), and 28 received only adjuvant TMZ or PCV (ADJ). There were 9 (10%) versus 6 (19%) versus 0 (0%) cases of grade 3 lymphopenia (ALC < 500/mm3) at 6 weeks and 4 (6%) versus 0 (0%) versus 3 (17%) cases at 12 months in CRT + ADJ, CRT and ADJ groups, respectively. On multivariable analyses, concurrent chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 72.3, p < 0.001), female sex (OR 10.8, p < 0.001), and older age (OR 1.06, p = 0.002) were the most significant predictors for any grade ≥ 1 lymphopenia (ALC < 1000/mm3) at 1.5 months. Older age (OR 1.08, p = 0.02) and duration of adjuvant chemotherapy (OR 1.19, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with grade ≥ 1 lymphopenia at 12 months. Thus, concurrent chemotherapy appears as the dominant contributor to the severity of acute lymphopenia after RT in WHO grade II–III glioma patients, and duration of adjuvant chemotherapy appears as the key factor to prolonged lymphopenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-411
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Volume136
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • Adjuvant chemotherapy
  • Concurrent chemotherapy
  • Glioma
  • Lymphopenia
  • Radiation therapy

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