Background: Lung cancer invading the chest wall is treated with concomitant en bloc lung and chest wall resection (CWR). It is unclear how CWR affects postoperative outcomes of lung resection. We hypothesized that CWR would be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes after lung cancer resection. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) General Thoracic Surgery Database from 2016-2019. Patients with superior sulcus tumors were excluded. Patient demographic and operative outcomes were compared between those with and without CWR. Chest wall resection was added to existing STS lung risk models to determine the association with a composite adverse outcome, which included major morbidity and death. Results: Among 41 310 lung resections, 306 (0.74%) occurred with concomitant CWR. Differences between those with and without CWR included demographic and comorbidities. Patients undergoing CWR were more likely to have the composite adverse outcome (64 of 306 [20.9%] vs 3128 of 41 004 [7.6%] for non-CWR resections, P < .001). Mortality was also increased among the CWR cohort (2.9% vs 1.1%, P = .003). CWR was associated with an increased risk of adverse composite outcome among all lung resection patients in a multivariable model (odds ratio 1.74, P = .0003) and the lobectomy subgroup (odds ratio 2.35, P < .0001). Among institutions with ≥10 lung resections, 49.1% performed lung resections with CWR. Conclusions: Concomitant CWR adds risk of adverse outcomes after lung cancer resection. As a subset of intuitions perform CWR, quality assessments should control for CWR. This variable will be incorporated into the STS lung cancer and lobectomy quality composite measures.