Background Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to reduce ischemic events but is associated with increased rates of major and minor bleeding. Objectives This study sought to determine the incidence of post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) bleeding that occurs on contemporary DAPT and its impact on quality of life (QOL). Methods We studied 9,290 AMI patients treated with PCI and discharged alive between April 2010 and September 2012. Post-discharge bleeding was categorized according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) definition. The primary outcome was the 6-month Euro QOL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) index score (a measure of health utility); a secondary outcome was the EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) at 6 months. Results Of the 9,290 patients with AMI, bleeding events occurred as follows: any BARC bleeding: 24.2%; BARC 1: 9.1%; BARC 2: 13.8%; BARC 3: 1.1%; BARC 4: 0.03%; and BARC 5: 0%. Those who experienced any BARC bleeding had lower scores across all 5 EQ-5D domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain, and anxiety), as well as lower EQ-5D VAS and EQ-5D index scores. After clinical risk adjustment, any BARC bleeding was independently associated with 6-month EQ-5D index score (p < 0.0001) and lower QOL (p < 0.001). Both the EQ-5D index and the VAS score declined in a stepwise fashion with increasing BARC severity. Conclusions Among patients undergoing PCI for AMI, bleeding during follow-up was associated with worse 6-month utility and QOL. Although even minor bleeding was associated with impaired health status and QOL, the degree of impairment increased in a stepwise fashion with bleeding severity.
- Key Words antiplatelet therapy
- percutaneous coronary intervention
- quality of life