OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the impact a clinical practice guideline (CPG) had on antibiotic management of children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of discharged patients from a children's hospital with an ICD-9-CM code for pneumonia (480-486). Eligible patients were admitted from July 8, 2007, through July 9, 2009, 12 months before and after the CAP CPG was introduced. Three-stage least squares regression analyses were performed to examine hypothesized simultaneous relationships, including the impact of our institution's antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). RESULTS: The final analysis included 1033 patients: 530 (51%) before the CPG (pre-CPG) and 503 (49%) after the CPG (post-CPG). Pre-CPG, ceftriaxone (72%) was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, followed by ampicillin (13%). Post-CPG, the most common antibiotic was ampicillin (63%). The effect of the CPG was associated with a 34% increase in ampicillin use (P < .001). Discharge antibiotics also changed post-CPG, showing a significant increase in amoxicillin use (P < .001) and a significant decrease in cefdinir and amoxicillin/ clavulanate (P < .001), with the combined effect of the CPG and ASP leading to 12% (P < 0.001) and 16% (P < .001) reduction, respectively. Overall, treatment failure was infrequent (1.5% vs 1%). CONCLUSIONS: A CPG and ASP led to the increase in use of ampicillin for children hospitalized with CAP. In addition, less broad-spectrum discharge antibiotics were used. Patient adverse outcomes were low, indicating that ampicillin is appropriate first-line therapy for otherwise healthy children admitted with uncomplicated CAP.
- Clinical practice guideline
- Community-acquired pneumonia