Background and Aims Since 1985, the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) has awarded grants for endoscopic-related research. The goals of this study were to examine trends in ASGE grant funding and to assess productivity of previous recipients of the ASGE grant awards. Methods This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all research grants awarded by the ASGE through 2009. Measures of academic productivity and self-assessment of the ASGE awards’ impact on the recipients’ careers were defined by using publicly available resources (eg, National Library of Medicine–PubMed) and administration of an electronic survey to award recipients. Results The ASGE awarded 304 grants totaling $12.5 million to 214 unique awardees. Funding increased 7.5-fold between 1985 and 1989 (mean $102,000/year) and between 2005 and 2009 (mean $771,000/year). The majority of awardees were men (83%), were at or below the level of assistant professor (82%), with a median of 3 years of postfellowship experience at the time of the award, and derived from a broad spectrum of institutions as measured by National Institutes of Health funding rank (median 26, interquartile range [IQR] 12-64). Nineteen percent had a master's degree in a research-related field. Awardees’ median publications per year increased from 3.5 (IQR 1.2-9.0) before funding to 5.7 (IQR 1.8-9.5) since funding; P = .04, and median h-index scores increased from 3 (IQR 1-8) to 17 (IQR 8-26); P < .001. Multivariate analysis found that the presence of a second advanced degree (eg, masters or doctorate) was independently predictive of high productivity (odds ratio [OR] 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-7.81). Among 212 unique grant recipients, 82 (40%) completed the online survey. Of the respondents, median peer-reviewed publications per year increased from 3.4 (IQR 1.9-5.5) to 4.5 (IQR 2.0-9.5); P = .17. Ninety-one percent reported that the ASGE grant had a positive or very positive impact on their careers, and 85% of respondents are currently practicing in an academic environment. Most of the grants resulted in at least 1 peer-reviewed publication (67% per Internet-based search and 81% per survey). Conclusions The ASGE research program has grown considerably since 1985, with the majority of grants resulting in at least 1 grant-related publication. Overall academic productivity increased after the award, and the majority of awardees report a positive or very positive impact of the award on their careers. Medical professional societies are an important sponsor of clinical research.