Immunotherapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Past and Future Strategies for Optimization

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Abstract

Purpose of Review: To date, prostate cancer has been poorly responsive to immunotherapy. In the current review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on the use of vaccine therapy and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Recent Findings: Sipuleucel-T currently remains the only FDA-approved immunotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer. Single-agent phase 3 vaccine trials with GVAX and PROSTVAC have failed to demonstrate survival benefit to date. Clinical trials using combination approaches, including combination PROSTVAC along with a neoantigen vaccine and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy, are ongoing. Checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy clinical trials have demonstrated limited efficacy in advanced prostate cancer, and combination approaches and molecular patient selection are currently under investigation. Summary: The optimal use of vaccine therapy and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer remains to be determined. Ongoing clinical trials will continue to inform future clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number64
JournalCurrent urology reports
Volume20
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

Keywords

  • Castration resistance
  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immunotherapy
  • Metastatic prostate cancer
  • Neoantigen vaccine
  • Vaccines

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