Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

David C. Binder, Andrew A. Davis, Derek A. Wainwright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Brain metastases
  • IDO
  • T cell therapy
  • glioblastoma
  • glioma
  • vaccination


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