Regulation of the immune response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) by defined substructures of the protein was investigated. The fragments consisted of 41 to 307 amino acids each bearing unique serologic determinants. When administered intravenously the fragments were capable of suppressing the immune response to the entire BSA molecule. The suppression was T-cell mediated and affected the determinants that were linked. The fragments also primed for a secondary anti-BSA response when given in adjuvant; however, the ability to prime was restricted to determinants on the immunizing fragment. The data demonstrate that immune responses to a large protein molecule can be regulated by a relatively small component of its structure and that the ability of a fragment to induce help is more restricted than is its suppressive potential.