We report the clinical description and molecular dissection of a new fatal human inherited disorder characterized by chronic autoinflammation, invasive bacterial infections and muscular amylopectinosis. Patients from two kindreds carried biallelic loss-of-expression and loss-of-function mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1), a component of the linear ubiquitination chain assembly complex (LUBAC). These mutations resulted in impairment of LUBAC stability. NF-κB activation in response to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) was compromised in the patients' fibroblasts. By contrast, the patients' mononuclear leukocytes, particularly monocytes, were hyper-responsive to IL-1β. The consequences of human HOIL-1 and LUBAC deficiencies for IL-1β responses thus differed between cell types, consistent with the unique association of autoinflammation and immunodeficiency in these patients. These data suggest that LUBAC regulates NF-κB-dependent IL-1β responses differently in different cell types.