West Nile virus (WNV) continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS), the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3812-3830
Number of pages19
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2012


  • Adaptive immunity
  • Brain
  • Flavivirus
  • Immunopathogenesis
  • Innate immunity
  • Neuron
  • Pathogenesis


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