Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is curative for pediatric patients with non-malignant hematopoietic disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and primary immunodeficiencies. Early establishment of donor-derived innate and adaptive immunity following HCT is associated with improved overall survival, lower risk of infections and decreased incidence of graft failure. Immune reconstitution (IR) is impacted by numerous clinical variables including primary disease, donor characteristics, conditioning regimen, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). Recent advancements in HCT have been directed at reducing toxicity of conditioning therapy, expanding donor availability through use of alternative donor sources, and addressing morbidity from GVHD with novel graft manipulation. These novel transplant approaches impact the kinetics of immune recovery, which influence post-transplant outcomes. Here we review immune reconstitution in pediatric patients undergoing HCT for non-malignant disorders. We explore the transplant-associated factors that influence immunologic recovery and the disease-specific associations between IR and transplant outcomes.
- aplastic anemia
- hematopoietic stem cell transplant
- immune reconstitution
- non-malignant disorders
- severe combined immunodeficiency