Ageing leads to profound alterations in the immune system and increases susceptibility to some chronic, infectious and autoimmune diseases. In recent years, widespread application of single-cell techniques has enabled substantial progress in our understanding of the ageing immune system. These comprehensive approaches have expanded and detailed the current views of ageing and immunity. Here we review a body of recent studies that explored how the immune system ages using unbiased profiling techniques at single-cell resolution. Specifically, we discuss an emergent understanding of age-related alterations in innate and adaptive immune cell populations, antigen receptor repertoires and immune cell-supporting microenvironments of the peripheral tissues. Focusing on the results obtained in mice and humans, we describe the multidimensional data that align with established concepts of immune ageing as well as novel insights emerging from these studies. We further discuss outstanding questions in the field and highlight techniques that will advance our understanding of immune ageing in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)484-498
Number of pages15
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


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