BACKGROUND: We report the case of a patient with aplastic anemia and pancytopenia on immune-suppressive therapy who developed invasive pulmonary infection with mucormycosis and was treated with immune adjuvant therapy. CASE SUMMARY: Given the patient's profound lymphopenia and progressive invasive mucor despite dual antifungal drug therapy, interleukin (IL)-7, a cytokine that induces lymphocyte activation and proliferation, was instituted and resulted in normalization of absolute lymphocyte counts and was temporally associated with clearance of fungal pathogens and resolution of clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: Patients with life-threatening fungal infections are frequently immune suppressed and immune adjuvant therapies should be considered in patients who are not responding to antifungal drugs and source control. Well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed to advance the field. Although a number of immune adjuvants may be beneficial in fungal sepsis, IL-7 is a particularly attractive immune adjuvant because of its broad immunologic effects on key immunologic pathways that mediate enhanced antifungal immune system activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E0990
JournalCritical Care Explorations
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 19 2023


  • fungal
  • immunity
  • infection
  • lymphocyte
  • sepsis


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