Heart failure involves a complex interplay between diverse populations of immune cells that dynamically shift across the natural history of disease. Within this context, the character of the immune response is a key determinant of clinical outcomes. Recent technological advances in single-cell transcriptomic, spatial, and proteomic technologies have fueled an explosion of new and clinically relevant insights into distinct immune cell populations that reside within the diseased heart including potential targets for molecular imaging and therapy. In this review, we will discuss the immune cell types and their respective functions with respect to myocardial infarction remodeling, dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In addition, we give a brief overview regarding myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis as inflammatory heart failure etiologies. We will highlight markers and cell populations as targets for molecular imaging to visualize inflammation and tissue healing and discuss clinical implications including the development and implementation of precision medicine approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E014071
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • heart failure
  • immune system
  • inflammation
  • interleukin
  • molecular imaging


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