Imaging Features of Premalignant Biliary Lesions and Predisposing Conditions with Pathologic Correlation

Maria Zulfiqar, Deyali Chatterjee, Norihide Yoneda, Mark J. Hoegger, Maxime Ronot, Elizabeth M. Hecht, Nina Bastati, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Mustafa R. Bashir, Kathryn Fowler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Biliary malignancies include those arising from the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts as well as the gallbladder and hepatopancre-atic ampulla of Vater.The majority of intrahepatic and extrahepatic malignancies are cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs).They arise owing to a complex interplay between the patient-specific genetic background and multiple risk factors and may occur in the liver (intrahepatic CCA), hilum (perihilar CCA), or extrahepatic bile ducts (distal CCA). Biliary-type adenocarcinoma constitutes the most common histologic type of ampullary and gallbladder malignancies. Its prognosis is poor and surgical resection is considered curative, so early detection is key, with multi-modality imaging playing a central role in making the diagnosis.There are several risk factors for biliary malignancy as well as predisposing conditions that increase the risk; this review highlights the pertinent imaging features of these entities with histopathologic correlation.The predisposing factors are broken down into three major categories: (a) congenital malformations such as choledochal cyst and pancreaticobiliary maljunction; (b) infectious or inflammatory conditions such as parasitic infections, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and porcelain gallbladder; and (c) preinvasive epithelial neoplasms such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasm, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, intra-ampullary papillary tubular neoplasm, and intracholecystic papillary neoplasm of the gallbladder. Recognizing the baseline features of these premalignant biliary entities and changes in their appearance over time that indicate the advent of malignancy in high-risk patients can lead to early diagnosis and potentially curative management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1320-1337
Number of pages18
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022


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