Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections generate pulmonary pathologies that can be associated with strong TH2 polarization of the host's immune response. We present data demonstrating N. brasiliensis-driven airway mucus production to be dependent on smooth muscle cell interleukin 4 receptor-α (IL-4Rα) responsiveness. At days 7 and 10 post infection (PI), significant airway mucus production was found in IL-4Rα /lox control mice, whereas global knockout (IL-4Rα /) and smooth muscle-specific IL-4Rα- deficient mice (SM-MHC Cre IL-4Rα /lox) showed reduced airway mucus responses. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5 cytokine production in SM-MHC Cre IL-4Rα /lox mice was impaired along with a transient reduction in T-cell numbers in the lung. In vitro treatment of smooth muscle cells with secreted N. brasiliensis excretory-secretory antigen (NES) induced IL-6 production. Decreased protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent smooth muscle cell proliferation associated with cell cycle arrest was found in cells stimulated with NES. Together, these data demonstrate that both IL-4Rα and NES-driven responses by smooth muscle cells make important contributions in initiating TH2 responses against N. brasiliensis infections.