The objective of this study is to examine IL-11-induced mechanisms of inflammatory cell migration to the central nervous system (CNS). We report that IL-11 is produced at highest frequency by myeloid cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets. Patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) have an increased frequency of IL-11+ monocytes, IL-11+ and IL-11R+ CD4+ lymphocytes, and IL-11R+ neutrophils in comparison to matched healthy controls. IL-11+ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)+ monocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, and neutrophils accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The effect of IL-11 in-vitro stimulation, examined using single-cell RNA sequencing, revealed the highest number of differentially expressed genes in classical monocytes, including up-regulated NFKB1, NLRP3, and IL1B. All CD4+ cell subsets had increased expression of S100A8/9 alarmin genes involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In IL-11R+-sorted cells from the CSF, classical and intermediate monocytes significantly up-regulated the expression of multiple NLRP3 inflammasome–related genes, including complement, IL18, and migratory genes (VEGFA/B) in comparison to blood-derived cells. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway with αIL-11 mAb in mice with RR experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) decreased clinical scores, CNS inflammatory infiltrates, and demyelination. αIL-11 mAb treatment decreased the numbers of NFκBp65+, NLRP3+, and IL-1β+ monocytes in the CNS of mice with EAE. The results suggest that IL-11/IL-11R signaling in monocytes represents a therapeutic target in RRMS.
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - 2023
- NLRP3 inflammasome
- multiple sclerosis