Background: IgG4-associated orbital and ocular inflammation is a relatively unknown entity characterized by sclerosing inflammation with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Some so-called idiopathic inflammation syndromes are being re-classified as IgG4-associated inflammation with histopathologic evaluation. Findings: We report three cases with differing manifestations of IgG4-associated ocular and orbital inflammation: a case of recurrent, treatment-refractory sclero-uveitis that was diagnosed as granulomatosis with polyangiitis with an IgG4-related component, a case of pachymeningitis with optic neuritis that resulted in permanent visual loss, and a case of orbital inflammatory pseudotumor. All three would have been incompletely diagnosed without thorough histopathologic evaluation (including immunohistochemistry). Conclusions: IgG4-associated disease is an idiopathic, multi-organ inflammatory state that can manifest as chronic, relapsing, sclerosing inflammation in virtually any organ system. There is a wide range of presentations in ocular and orbital inflammation. Ophthalmologists should keep IgG4-associated inflammation in mind when examining chronic, sclerofibrosing inflammation with multi-system involvement. The histology of biopsy specimens is crucial in making the correct diagnosis. Timely assessment may lead to fewer diagnostic tests and more targeted therapy.
- IgG4-associated ocular inflammation
- IgG4-associated orbital inflammation