Identifying Visual Attention Features Accurately Discerning Between Autism and Typically Developing: a Deep Learning Framework

Jin Xie, Longfei Wang, Paula Webster, Yang Yao, Jiayao Sun, Shuo Wang, Huihui Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Atypical visual attention is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Identifying the attention features accurately discerning between people with ASD and typically developing (TD) at the individual level remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a new systematic framework combining high accuracy deep learning classification, deep learning segmentation, image ablation and a direct measurement of classification ability to identify the discriminative features for autism identification. Our two-stream model achieved the state-of-the-art performance with a classification accuracy of 0.95. Using this framework, two new categories of features, Food & drink and Outdoor-objects, were identified as discriminative attention features, in addition to the previously reported features including Center-object and Human-faces, etc. Altered attention to the new categories helps to understand related atypical behaviors in ASD. Importantly, the area under curve (AUC) based on the combined top-9 features identified in this study was 0.92, allowing an accurate classification at the individual level. We also obtained a small but informative dataset of 12 images with an AUC of 0.86, suggesting a potentially efficient approach for the clinical diagnosis of ASD. Together, our deep learning framework based on VGG-16 provides a novel and powerful tool to recognize and understand abnormal visual attention in ASD, which will, in turn, facilitate the identification of biomarkers for ASD. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
JournalInterdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Deep learning
  • Eye movement
  • Visual attention

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