Identifying Slim Modiolar Electrode Tip Fold-Over With Intracochlear Electrocochleography

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Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of intracochlear electrocochleography (ECochG) for identifying tip fold-over during cochlear implantation (CI) using the slim modiolar electrode (SME) array. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Methods: From July 2022 to June 2023, 142 patients, including adults and children, underwent intracochlear ECochG monitoring during and after SME placement. Tone-bursts were presented from 250 Hz to 2 kHz at 108 to 114 dB HL. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) allowed for frequency-specific evaluation of ECochG response. ECochG patterns during insertion and postinsertion were evaluated using sensitivity and specificity analysis to predict tip fold-over. Intraoperative plain radiographs served as a reference standard. Results: Fifteen tip fold-over cases occurred (10.6%) with significant ECochG response (>2 µV). Sixty-one cases without tip fold-over occurred (43.0%) with significant ECochG response. All tip fold-overs had both a nontonotopic postinsertion sweep and nonrobust active insertion pattern. No patients with robust insertion or tonotopic sweep patterns had tip fold-over. Sensitivity of detecting tip fold-over when having both nonrobust insertion and nontonotopic sweep patterns was 100% (95% confidence inteval [CI] 78.2%-100%), specificity was 68.9% (95% CI 55.7%-80.1%), and the overall accuracy was 72.0% (95% CI 60.5%-81.7%). Conclusion: Intracochlear ECochG monitoring during cochlear implantation with the SME can be a valuable tool for identifying properly positioned electrode arrays. In cases where ECochG patterns are nonrobust on insertion and nontonotopic for electrode sweeps, there may be a concern for tip fold-over, and intraoperative imaging is necessary to confirm proper insertion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1124-1132
Number of pages9
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • CI632
  • ECochG
  • cochlear implantation
  • cochlear implants
  • intracochlear electrocochleography
  • slim modiolar electrode
  • tip fold-over


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