Identification of biomarkers modulated by the rexinoid LGD1069 (Bexarotene) in human breast cells using oligonucleotide arrays

Hee Tae Kim, Gu Kong, David DeNardo, Yuxin Li, Ivan Uray, Sunita Pal, Syed Mohsin, Susan G. Hilsenbeck, Reid Bissonnette, William W. Lamph, Karen Johnson, Powel H. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Retinoids have been found to be promising chemopreventive agents that play an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The action of retinoids is mediated by retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors), which are nuclear transcription factors that, when bound to retinoids, regulate gene expression. LGD1069 is a highly selective RXR agonist that has reduced toxicity compared with retinoids. Our previous studies have shown that RXR-selective ligands (or "rexinoids"), including LGD1069, can inhibit the growth of normal and malignant breast cells and can suppress the development of breast cancer in transgenic mice. For the current study, we attempted to identify biomarkers of the chemopreventive effect of the RXR-selective retinoid LGD1069. In these experiments, we used Affymetrix microarrays to identify target genes that were modulated by LGD1069 in normal human breast cells. Affymetrix and dChip analysis identified more than 100 genes that were up-regulated or down-regulated by LGD1069 treatment. We then tested 16 of these genes in validation experiments using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting of independently prepared samples, and found that 15 of 16 genes were modulated in a similar manner in these validation experiments as in the microarray experiments. Genes found to be regulated include known retinoid-regulated genes, growth regulatory genes, transcription factors, and differentiation markers. We then showed that the expression of several of these rexinoid-regulated biomarkers is modulated in vivo in mammary glands from mice treated with LGD1069. These critical growth-regulating proteins will be promising targets of future agents for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12009-12018
Number of pages10
JournalCancer research
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 15 2006


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