KEAP1 is a substrate adaptor protein for a CUL3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. Ubiquitylation and degradation of the antioxidant transcription factor NRF2 is considered the primary function of KEAP1; however, few other KEAP1 substrates have been identified. Because KEAP1 is altered in a number of human pathologies and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target therein, we sought to better understand KEAP1 through systematic identification of its substrates. Toward this goal, we combined parallel affinity capture proteomics and candidatebased approaches. Substrate-trapping proteomics yielded NRF2 and the related transcription factor NRF1 as KEAP1 substrates. Our targeted investigation of KEAP1-interacting proteins revealed MCM3, an essential subunit of the replicative DNA helicase, as a new substrate. We show that MCM3 is ubiquitylated by the KEAP1-CUL3-RBX1 complex in cells and in vitro. Using ubiquitin remnant profiling, we identify the sites of KEAP1-dependent ubiquitylation in MCM3, and these sites are on predicted exposed surfaces of the MCM2-7 complex. Unexpectedly, we determined that KEAP1 does not regulate total MCM3 protein stability or subcellular localization. Our analysis of a KEAP1 targeting motif in MCM3 suggests that MCM3 is a point of direct contact between KEAP1 and the MCMhexamer. Moreover, KEAP1 associates with chromatin in a cell cycle-dependent fashion with kinetics similar to the MCM2-7 complex. KEAP1 is thus poised to affect MCM2-7 dynamics or function rather than MCM3 abundance. Together, these data establish newfunctions for KEAP1within the nucleusandidentifyMCM3as a novel substrate of the KEAP1-CUL3-RBX1 E3 ligase.