While the leukocyte intregrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 has been demonstrated to bind intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, results with the related Mac-1 molecule have been controversial. We have used multiple cell binding assays, purified Mac-1 and ICAM-1, and cell lines transfected with Mac-1 and ICAM-1 cDNAs to examine the interaction of ICAM-1 with Mac-1. Stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which express a high surface density of ICAM-1, bind to immunoaffinity-purified Mac-1 absorbed to artificial substrates in a manner that is inhibited by mAbs to Mac-1 and ICAM-1. Transfected murine L cells or monkey COS cells expressing human ICAM-1 bind to purified Mac-1 in a specific and dose-dependent manner; the attachment to Mac-1 is more temperature sensitive, lower in avidity, and blocked by a different series of ICAM-1 mAbs when compared to LFA-1. In a reciprocal assay, COS cells cotransfected with the α and β chain cDNAs of Mac-1 or LFA-1 attach to immunoaffinity-purified ICAM-1 substrates; this adhesion is blocked by mAbs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 or LFA-1. Two color fluorescence cell conjugate experiments show that neutrophils stimulated with fMLP bind to HUVEC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24 h in an ICAM-1-, Mac-1-, and LFA-1-dependent fashion. Because cellular and purified Mac-1 interact with cellular and purified Mac-1 interact with cellular and purified ICAM-1, we conclude that ICAM-1 is a counter receptor for Mac-1 and that this receptor pair is resonsible, in part, for the adhesion between stimulated neutrophils and stimulated endothelial cells.