Iatrogenic fixed sagittal imbalance in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease: Prevention and management

Anthony S. Rinella, Keith H. Bridwell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The normal ranges of sagittal curvatures in the spine vary considerably between individuals. Bernhardt and Bridwell (1) studied 102 adolescents noting wide ranges of thoracic kyphosis (9-53, SD 10) and lumbar lordosis (14 to 69, SD 12). Lumbar lordosis increased segmentally with 67% of lordosis located between L4 and the sacrum. Jackson and McManus (2) provided similar measurements, further noting that the upper thoracolumbar junction (T10-T12) averaged 5.5 of kyphosis, while the lower thoracolumbar junction (T12-L2) averaged 3 of lordosis.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComplications of Pediatric and Adult Spinal Surgery
PublisherCRC Press
Pages493-512
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780824753092
ISBN (Print)9780824754211
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004

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