The normal ranges of sagittal curvatures in the spine vary considerably between individuals. Bernhardt and Bridwell (1) studied 102 adolescents noting wide ranges of thoracic kyphosis (9-53, SD 10) and lumbar lordosis (14 to 69, SD 12). Lumbar lordosis increased segmentally with 67% of lordosis located between L4 and the sacrum. Jackson and McManus (2) provided similar measurements, further noting that the upper thoracolumbar junction (T10-T12) averaged 5.5 of kyphosis, while the lower thoracolumbar junction (T12-L2) averaged 3 of lordosis.
|Title of host publication||Complications of Pediatric and Adult Spinal Surgery|
|Number of pages||20|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2004|