Over the last two decades, essential hypertension has become common in adolescents, yet remains under-diagnosed in absence of symptoms. Diagnosis is based on normative percentiles that factor in age, sex and height. Evaluation is more similar to adult essential hypertension than childhood secondary hypertension. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, sodium consumption and low exercise should be addressed first. Many anti-hypertensive medications now have specific regulatory approval for children. Sports participation need not be limited in mild or well-controlled cases. Primary care physicians play an important role in reduction of cardiovascular mortality by early detection and referral when needed.
- Antihypertensive medications
- Cardiovascular mortality