Hyperglycemia induced by pasireotide in patients with Cushing’s disease or acromegaly

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Abstract

Purpose: Cushing’s disease (CD) and acromegaly are characterized by excessive hormone secretion resulting in comorbidities such as impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes and hypertension. Pasireotide is a new-generation, multireceptor-targeted somatostatin receptor ligand approved for CD (subcutaneous [SC] injection formulation) and acromegaly (long-acting release [LAR] formulation). In clinical studies of pasireotide, hyperglycemia-related adverse events (AEs) were frequently observed. This review highlights differences in reported rates of hyperglycemia in pasireotide trials and discusses risk factors for and management of pasireotide-associated hyperglycemia. Methods: Clinical trials evaluating pasireotide in patients with CD or acromegaly were reviewed. Results: The frequency of hyperglycemia-related AEs was lower in patients with acromegaly treated with pasireotide LAR (57.3–67.0 %) than in patients with CD treated with pasireotide SC (68.4–73.0 %). Fewer patients with acromegaly treated with pasireotide LAR discontinued therapy because of hyperglycemia-related AEs (Colao et al. in J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(3):791–799, 2014, 3.4 %; Gadelha et al. in Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2(11):875–884, 2014, 4.0 %) than did patients with CD treated with pasireotide SC (Boscaro et al. in Pituitary 17(4):320–326, 2014, 5.3 %; Colao et al. in N Engl J Med 366(10):914–924, 2012, 6.0 %). Hyperglycemia-related AEs occurred in 40.0 % of patients with acromegaly treated with pasireotide SC, and 10.0 % discontinued treatment because of hyperglycemia. Ongoing studies evaluating pasireotide LAR in patients with CD and management of pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia in patients with CD or acromegaly (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT01374906 and NCT02060383, respectively) will address these key safety issues. Conclusions: Disease pathophysiology, drug formulation, and physician experience potentially influence the differences in reported rates of pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia in CD and acromegaly. Hyperglycemic effects associated with pasireotide have a predictable pattern, can be managed with antidiabetic agents, and are reversible upon discontinuation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-543
Number of pages8
JournalPituitary
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Keywords

  • Acromegaly
  • Cushing’s disease
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Pasireotide

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