To investigate our impression that hypercalciuria is relatively common in children with osteogenesis imperfecta, we performed a retrospective study of data accumulated from our pediatric population with this skeletal disorder. Children with osteogenesis imperfecta (17 girls, 30 boys; mean (±SD) age 7.8±4.6 years; range 0.7 to 16.8 years) had undergone detailed inpatient evaluation of mineral homeostasis during periods of clinical stability and controlled dietary calcium intake. Hypercalciuria was found in 36% of the patients and averaged (±SEM) 6.1±0.3 mg/kg per 24 hours (0.15±0.01 mmol/kg per 24 hours) or 392±28 mg/gm of creatinine (1.10±0.07 mmol calcium/mmol creatinine) in the group with hypercalciuria. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, or dietary calcium intake (per kilogram of body weight) between the normocalciuric and hypercalciuric children. However, the group with hypercalciuria was shorter than the normocalciuric group and had a greater lifelong fracture rate. When patient height z scores were regressed against urinary calcium levels, a significant negative correlation was found in the group with hypercalciuria (r=-0.76; p<0.001). Although serum alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in the group with hypercalciuria, no difference was found between groups with regard to serum levels of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, creatinine, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, or osteocalcin. The groups were also similar with respect to both their total body mineral density, as determined by dual-photon absorptiometry (n=17), and their static indexes of bone formation and resorption, as assessed histomorphometrically with iliac crest specimens (n=19). We conclude that hypercalciuria occurs frequently in children with osteogenesis imperfecta, and that its magnitude appears to reflect the severity of the skeletal disease.