Hybrid adaptive radiotherapy with on-line MRI in cervix cancer IMRT

Seungjong Oh, James Stewart, Joanne Moseley, Valerie Kelly, Karen Lim, Jason Xie, Anthony Fyles, Kristy K. Brock, Anna Lundin, Henrik Rehbinder, Michael Milosevic, David Jaffray, Young Bin Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Purpose Substantial organ motion and tumor shrinkage occur during radiotherapy for cervix cancer. IMRT planning studies have shown that the quality of radiation delivery is influenced by these anatomical changes, therefore the adaptation of treatment plans may be warranted. Image guidance with off-line replanning, i.e. hybrid-adaptation, is recognized as one of the most practical adaptation strategies. In this study, we investigated the effects of soft tissue image guidance using on-line MR while varying the frequency of off-line replanning on the adaptation of cervix IMRT. Materials and method 33 cervical cancer patients underwent planning and weekly pelvic MRI scans during radiotherapy. 5 patients of 33 were identified in a previous retrospective adaptive planning study, in which the coverage of gross tumor volume/clinical target volume (GTV/CTV) was not acceptable given single off-line IMRT replan using a 3 mm PTV margin with bone matching. These 5 patients and a randomly selected 10 patients from the remaining 28 patients, a total of 15 patients of 33, were considered in this study. Two matching methods for image guidance (bone to bone and soft tissue to dose matrix) and three frequencies of off-line replanning (none, single, and weekly) were simulated and compared with respect to target coverage (cervix, GTV, lower uterus, parametrium, upper vagina, tumor related CTV and elective lymph node CTV) and OAR sparing (bladder, bowel, rectum, and sigmoid). Cost (total process time) and benefit (target coverage) were analyzed for comparison. Results Hybrid adaptation (image guidance with off-line replanning) significantly enhanced target coverage for both 5 difficult and 10 standard cases. Concerning image guidance, bone matching was short of delivering enough doses for 5 difficult cases even with a weekly off-line replan. Soft tissue image guidance proved successful for all cases except one when single or more frequent replans were utilized in the difficult cases. Cost and benefit analysis preferred (soft tissue) image guidance over (frequent) off-line replanning. Conclusions On-line MRI based image guidance (with combination of dose distribution) is a crucial element for a successful hybrid adaptive radiotherapy. Frequent off-line replanning adjuvantly enhances adaptation quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-328
Number of pages6
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Adaptive radiotherapy
  • Cost and benefit
  • Dose accumulation
  • MR image guidance
  • Soft tissue matching


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