Purpose of review: In recent years, there has been increasing awareness and appreciation for the role of humoral immune responses in lung allograft rejection. This review summarizes our current understanding of this role and the associated challenges. Recent findings: Recent studies have described a syndrome of acute antibody-mediated rejection with a generally poor response to therapy and a high mortality. In addition, there is significant evidence implicating donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies in the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. However, the optimal intervention to mitigate the risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction after donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies development remains unclear. Summary: There is mounting evidence that humoral immune responses play an important role in lung allograft rejection. However, therapeutic implications of this increased awareness have been limited. Indeed, there is insufficient evidence to adequately guide therapy, and the optimal treatment is unknown.
- antibody-mediated rejection
- chronic lung allograft dysfunction
- donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies
- lung transplantation