Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), a member of the collectin group of innate immune proteins, plays important roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition. We have previously shown that surfactant protein A (SP-A), a homologous collectin, interacts with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, resulting in alteration of TLR2-mediated signaling. In this study, we found that natural and recombinant SP-Ds exhibited specific binding to the extracellular domains of soluble forms of recombinant TLR2 (sTLR2) and TLR4 (sTLR4). Binding was concentration- and Ca2+-dependent, and SP-D bound to N-glycosidase F-treated sTLRs on ligand blots. Anti-SP-D monoclonal antibody 7A10 blocked binding of SP-D to sTLR2 and sTLR4, but there was no inhibitory effect of monoclonal 7C6. Epitope mapping with recombinant proteins consisting of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and the neck domain plus CRD (NCRD) localized binding sites for 7A10 and 7C6 to sequential epitopes associated with the CRD and the neck domain, respectively. Interactions with 7A10 but not 7C6 were blocked by prior binding of the NCRD to sTLRs. Although antibody 7A10 significantly inhibited the binding of SP-D to its major surfactant-associated ligand, phosphatidylinositol (PI), and Escherichia coli Rc LPS, 7C6 enhanced binding to both molecules. An SP-DE321Q,N323D mutant with altered carbohydrate specificity exhibited attenuated PI binding but showed an increased level of binding to sTLRs. Thus, human SP-D binds the extracellular domains of TLR2 and TLR4 through its CRD by a mechanism different from its binding to PI and LPS.