Purpose: This study explored human papillomavirus (HPV) amplification in breast benign and malignant lesions by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and the concordance of p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. Patients and Methods: The presence of HPV6/11 and HPV16/18 in 33 cases of intraductal papilloma, 34 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 56 cases of invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) was evaluated using matched-background breast parenchyma and breast reduction as control groups. Association with clinicopathologic factors including prognosis was assessed. Results: HPV 6/11 was observed in 0 cases (0%) of breast reduction, one case (3%) of intraductal papilloma, 11 cases (32.4%) of DCIS, and eight cases (14.3%) of IBC. HPV 16/18 was detected in three cases of (9.1%) breast reduction, six cases (18.8%) of intraductal papillomas, 14 cases (41.2%) of DCIS, and 25 cases (44.6%) of IBC. There was no difference in the HPV status between intraductal papilloma and breast reduction. HPV amplification in intraductal papilloma did not associate with developing atypia or carcinoma after long-term follow-up. However, HPV 6/11 and HPV 16/18 amplification was significantly higher in both DCIS and IBC when compared with breast reduction (P < .05). Compared with background breast parenchyma, HPV 16/18 amplification was significantly higher in both DCIS and IBC (P = .003 and P = .013, respectively). No correlation between p16 immunohistochemical staining and either of the HPV CISH testing was found (P > .05). Conclusion: HPV infection was detected in both breast lesions and background parenchyma. HPV infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer but is not associated with intraductal papilloma. Immunohistochemical stain for p16 is not a good surrogate marker for HPV infection in breast lesions.
- invasive breast cancer
- virus infection