Human immunodeficiency virus has similar effects on brain volumetrics and cognition in males and females

Ashley M. Behrman-Lay, Robert H. Paul, Jodi Heaps-Woodruff, Laurie M. Baker, Christina Usher, Beau M. Ances

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Most studies that have examined neuropsychological impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have focused on males, yet females represent one of the largest groups of newly infected patients. Further, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance and neuroimaging outcomes among females compared to males in the modern era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The present study investigated neuropsychological performance and brain volumetrics among HIV+ males (n = 93) and females (n = 44) on stable HAART compared to HIV seronegative (HIV−) males (n = 42) and females (n = 49). Results revealed a significant effect of HIV on neuropsychological performance and neuroimaging measures. An effect of gender, independent of HIV status, was also observed for neuroimaging measures but not neuropsychological performance. Additionally, no significant differences in neuropsychological performance or brain volumetrics were seen between HIV+ males and females. No significant interaction was observed between HIV and gender on either neuropsychological or neuroimaging indices. Our results suggest that both HIV+ males and females treated with HAART experience similar outcomes in terms of brain integrity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-103
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of NeuroVirology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Cognition
  • Gender
  • HIV
  • Neuroimaging
  • Neuropsychology
  • Volumetrics


Dive into the research topics of 'Human immunodeficiency virus has similar effects on brain volumetrics and cognition in males and females'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this